Forms of Dystonia

Forms of Dystonia

Forms of Dystonia

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Early-onset generalised

Early-onset generalised
Early-onset generalised dystonia, the most common hereditary form of dystonia, is characterised by the twisting of the limbs, specifically the foot/leg or hand/arm. The spasms may spread to involve twisting contractions of other parts of the body. Find out more…

Dopa-Repsonsive

Dopa-Repsonsive

Dopa-Repsonsive Dystonia (DRD), a heredity form of dystonia, is characterised by progressive difficulty walking. Its symptoms may be similar to those of early-onset generalised dystonia. Find out more…

Paroxysmal Dystonia

Paroxysmal dyskinesias

Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders in which abnormal movements are present only during attacks. The term paroxysmal indicates that symptoms are noticeable only at certain times. Find out more…

X-linked Dystonia

X-linked Dystonia

X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism or Lubag is a rare genetic form of dystonia found almost entirely among men from the Philippine Island of Panay. Find out more…

Myoclonic Dystonia

Myoclonic Dystonia

Myoclonic dystonia, a less common genetic form of dystonia, is characterised by rapid lightening-like movements (jerks) alone or in combination with the sustained muscular contractions and postures of dystonia. Find out more…

Rapid-Onset Dystonia

Rapid-Onset Dystonia 

Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP), a rare hereditary form of dystonia, is characterised by the abrupt onset of slowness of movement (parkinsonism) and dystonic symptoms. Find out more…

Secondary Dystonia

The various forms of dystonia can be classified into two broad groups: primary dystonias and secondary dystonias. Primary dystonias are largely genetic in origin whereas secondary dystonias result from apparent outside factors and are usually attributed to a specific cause, such as exposure to certain medications, trauma, toxins, infections, or stroke. Find out more…

Blepharospasm

Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterised by increased blinking and involuntary closing of the eyes. People with blepharospasm have normal vision. Visual disturbance is due solely to the forced closure of the eyelids. Find out more…

Oromandibular

Oromandibular Dystonia is a focal dystonia characterised by forceful contractions of the jaw and tongue, causing difficulty in opening and closing the mouth and often affecting chewing and speech. Find out more…

Spasmodic dysphonia

Spasmodic dysphonia, a focal form of dystonia, involves involuntary “spasms” of the vocal cords, causing interruptions of speech and affecting the voice quality. Find out more…

Cervical Dystonia

Cervical Dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis, is a focal dystonia characterised by neck muscles contracting involuntarily, causing abnormal movements and posture of the head and neck. Find out more…

Writer’s Cramp

Writer’s Cramp is a task-specific focal dystonia of the hand. Symptoms usually appear when a person is trying to do a task that requires fine motor movements. The symptoms may appear only during a particular type of movement, such as writing or playing the piano, but the dystonia may spread to affect many tasks. Find out more…

Embouchure

Embouchure dystonia is a term used to describe a type of dystonia that affects brass and woodwind players. The term embouchure refers to the adjustment of the mouth to fit the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. The anatomy of this form of dystonia includes muscles of the mouth, face, jaw, and tongue. Find out more…