Understanding Dystonia
Forms of Dystonia
Genetic Forms
Focal Forms
Secondary Forms
Treatment Options
Self Help Support
Personal Experiences
Links of Interest

Genetic Forms

At present researchers have recognized multiple forms of inheritable dystonia and have identified the following genes or chromosomal locations responsible for the various manifestations.

  • DYT1     Early onset-generalized dystonia
  • DYT2     Autosomal recessive dystonia
  • DYT3     X-linked dystonia parkinsonism or Lubag
  • DYT4     Whispering dysphonia
  • DYT5     Dopa-Responsive Dystonia; Segawa syndrome (DYT14)
  • DYT6     Adolescent-onset dystonia of mixed type
  • DYT7     Adult-onset focal dystonia
  • DYT8     Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia
  • DYT9     Paroxysmal choreoathetosis with episodic ataxia and spasticity
  • DYT10   Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia choreoathetosis
  • DYT11   Myoclonus dystonia
  • DYT12   Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism
  • DYT13   Cranial-cervical dystonia
  • DYT15   Myoclonus-dystonia
  • DYT16   Early-onset generalized-parkinsonism
  • DYT17   Early-onset dystonia
  • DYT18   Paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia
  • DYT19   Episodic kinesigenic dyskinesia
  • DYT20   Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia
  • DYT21   Late-onset dystonia
Studying these genes already identified may shed light on the mechanisms of the disease process itself or reveal a pattern which produces certain proteins. This research has potential to help all. All dystonias have similar symptoms which involve the same area of the brain and the similar neurotransmitters. Until now, we have directed treatments to the effects of dystonia. Now we can attempt to direct treatment efforts to the causes of dystonia.